# Roman Numerals - Rules, Chart | What Are Roman Numerals?

When you consider numericals nowadays, the first of all that comes to mind is the decimal method we utilize regularly. This system, however, is not the single fashion to portray numbers. There are multiple methods utilized by distinct cultures all over the world that use all sorts of symbols. One of method is Roman numerals.

Since ancient Rome, Roman numerals have been a method of expressing numericals utilizing a combination of characters from the Latin alphabet. It remained during the Middle Ages and the modern day, to the extend it is still learned in school, that is probably why you have stumbled upon this article.

Now, we are going to walkthrough Roman numerals, what they are, how they operate, and how to change Roman numbers to regular numbers.

## What Are Roman Numbers?

Primarily, let's look at a quick look at the past of Roman numerals. Roman numbers were initially used by the historic Romans, as you might have expected from the name. They were used in multiple aspects of the Roman world, including trade, architecture, and even war.

Presently, its extensive use is mainly attributed to artistic reasons. You may have seen Roman numbers as hour marks on a clock, copyright dates, page numbering, chapter numbers, or in film sequels (e.g., The Godfather Part II).

The Roman number approach represents numericals utilizing a blend of characters from the Latin alphabet. Letters are mixed to form groups that represent numbers. Seven characters, I, V, X, L, C, D, and M, depicts the numericals 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, and 1000, respectively. You can then blend these numericals to represent any value in the numerical system.

### Meaning of the Roman numerals

Although the decimal system is founded on the concept of place value, Roman numbers are based on cumulative and subtractive principles. This means that a Roman numeral's numeric values are established on the sum of the values of its individual parts. Another major distinction is that the decimal approach is based on the number 10. In contrast, Roman numbers are established on the numbers 1 (I), 5 (V) and 10 (X).

### Examples

Let's take a look at a few hands-on examples of Roman numbers.

The computer game street fighter IV was released in arcades back in 2008. If we take a look at the numericals in the name, we see it has a V in it. This is because the number 5 in Roman number is represented by the letter V. Preceded by it is an I, or 1. Thus, we grasp that this is the 4th entry in the series using the properties we will speak on further ahead.

The film Star Wars Episode VI was the last entry in the original trilogy. Looking at the value described, it contains a V followed by an I. Hence, we will sum a 1 to the value of V, that is 5, comprehending this Star Wars movie is the 6th entry in the series.

## Roman Numerals Chart

To read Roman numbers, it is essential to know the numeric value of all the characters. To guide make this operation easy, here is a chart with every Latin alphabets with assigned numeric values.

Decimal Number | Roman Numeral |

1 | I |

2 | II |

3 | III |

4 | IV |

5 | V |

6 | VI |

7 | VII |

8 | VIII |

9 | IX |

10 | X |

11 | XI |

12 | XII |

13 | XIII |

14 | XIV |

15 | XV |

16 | XVI |

17 | XVII |

18 | XVIII |

19 | XIX |

20 | XX |

21 | XXI |

22 | XXII |

23 | XXIII |

24 | XXIV |

25 | XXV |

26 | XXVI |

27 | XXVII |

28 | XXVIII |

29 | XXIX |

30 | XXX |

31 | XXXI |

32 | XXXII |

33 | XXXIII |

34 | XXXIV |

35 | XXXV |

36 | XXXVI |

37 | XXXVII |

38 | XXXVIII |

39 | XXXIX |

40 | XL |

41 | XLI |

42 | XLII |

43 | XLIII |

44 | XLIV |

45 | XLV |

46 | XLVI |

47 | XLVII |

48 | XLVIII |

49 | XLIX |

50 | L |

51 | LI |

52 | LII |

53 | LIII |

54 | LIV |

55 | LV |

56 | LVI |

57 | LVII |

58 | LVIII |

59 | LIX |

60 | LX |

61 | LXI |

62 | LXII |

63 | LXIII |

64 | LXIV |

65 | LXV |

66 | LXVI |

67 | LXVII |

68 | LXVIII |

69 | LXIX |

70 | LXX |

71 | LXXI |

72 | LXXII |

73 | LXXIII |

74 | LXXIV |

75 | LXXV |

76 | LXXVI |

77 | LXXVII |

78 | LXXVIII |

79 | LXXIX |

80 | LXXX |

81 | LXXXI |

82 | LXXXII |

83 | LXXXIII |

84 | LXXXIV |

85 | LXXXV |

86 | LXXXVI |

87 | LXXXVII |

88 | LXXXVIII |

89 | LXXXIX |

90 | XC |

91 | XCI |

92 | XCII |

93 | XCIII |

94 | XCIV |

95 | XCV |

96 | XCVI |

97 | XCVII |

98 | XCVIII |

99 | XCIX |

100 | C |

200 | CC |

300 | CCC |

400 | CD |

500 | D |

600 | DC |

700 | DCC |

800 | DCCC |

900 | CM |

1000 | M |

## How to Convert from Roman Numerals to Decimal Numericals

Now that we have the handy table of Roman numbers, we can use that data to transform numbers back and forth quickly. Following these steps, you will convert these values whenever you want.

### Steps to Transform Roman numbers to Everyday Numericals

To transform Roman numbers to decimal numbers, we will utilize the cumulative and subtractive principles we discussed.

Begin with the leftmost Roman numerical in the group.

If the Roman number to its right is smaller in value, then sum the two values.

If the Roman numerical to its right is greater in value, subtract the Roman number on the right out of the Roman numbers to its left.

All you should do now is replicate this method unless you arrive at the end of the Roman number group.

Let's see how you can transform Roman numerals with a some examples.

### Example 1

Take a look at the Roman numeral LXXVI.

Begin with the leftmost Roman numeral, which is L or 50.

The Roman number to its right is X or 10. Considering 10 is lesser than 50, we sum the both values and get 60.

The Roman numeral to the right of X is X again. We add 10 to 60 and get 70.

The Roman number to the right of X is V or 5. Considering 5 is less than 70, we sum the both values and get 75.

The Roman number to the right of V is I or 1. Considering 1 is less than 75, we add the both values and the result is 76.

We halt here at the end of the Roman number group. Therefore, the Roman numeral LXXVI is equivalent to the regular number 76.

### Example 2

Study the Roman numeral MCMIII.

Begin with the leftmost Roman number, that is M or 1000.

The Roman number to its right is C or 100. Considering 100 is less than 1000, and it is ensued by an M, this value refers to 900.

The Roman number to the right of M is I or 1. Considering 1 is less than 1900, we sum the both values and the result is 1901.

The Roman numeral to the right of I is I again. We sum 1 to 1901 and we find 1902.

The Roman numeral to the right of I is I again. We add 1 to 1902 and get 1903.

Since we have reached the end of the Roman numeral group, we halt here with our answer. Thus, the Roman numeral MCMIII is as same as the decimal number 1903.

With this information and a some practice, you will transform Roman numbers to regular numbers like an expert!

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